# How to interpret mean and standard deviation in spss

## One-Sample T-Test using SPSS Statistics But because SPSS makes your analysis almost fool proof, it has become You can see here that the mean is , the median is and the mode is You can see here that the standard deviation (called Std. deviation) is , the .

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This quick tutorial will teach you how to calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of data in SPSS. You want to find out the mean and standard deviation of the duration variable. In other words, you want to know the average time it took to do the task, and how much the times vary � their spread. You need to get the variable for which you want to know the mean and standard deviation into the variables box on the right as per the image above. This can be done by selecting it on the left, and then clicking the blue arrow button. Now choose Options, and select Mean and Std.

The data used in these examples were collected on high schools students and are scores on various tests, including science, math, reading and social studies socst. The variable female is a dichotomous variable coded 1 if the student was female and 0 if male. In the syntax below, the get file command is used to load the data into SPSS. In quotes, you need to specify where the data file is located on your computer. Remember that you need to use the.

The frequencies command can be used to determine quartiles, percentiles, measures of central tendency mean, median, and mode , measures of dispersion range, standard deviation, variance, minimum and maximum , measures of kurtosis and skewness, and create histograms. The command is found at Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies this is shorthand for clicking on the Analyze menu item at the top of the window, and then clicking on Descriptive Statistics from the drop down menu, and Frequencies from the pop up menu. Then click on the arrow button to move the variable into the Variables pane: Be sure to select "Display frequency tables" if you want a frequency distribution. Specify which statistics you want to perform by clicking on the Statistics button. The Statistics dialog box will appear: From the statistics dialog box, click on the desired statistics that you want to perform. To calculate a given percentile, click in the box to the left of percentile s. Type in the desired percentile and click on the Add button.

## Descriptive statistics | SPSS Annotated Output

The one-sample t-test is used to determine whether a sample comes from a population with a specific mean. This population mean is not always known, but is sometimes hypothesized. For example, you want to show that a new teaching method for pupils struggling to learn English grammar can improve their grammar skills to the national average. Your sample would be pupils who received the new teaching method and your population mean would be the national average score. This "quick start" guide shows you how to carry out a one-sample t-test using SPSS Statistics, as well as interpret and report the results from this test. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you need to understand the different assumptions that your data must meet in order for a one-sample t-test to give you a valid result.

Descriptive statistics are useful for describing the basic features of data, for example, the summary statistics for the scale variables and measures of the data. In a research study with large data, these statistics may help us to manage the data and present it in a summary table. Measure of central tendency: The measure of central tendency measures the average value of the sample. In descriptive statistics, there are two types of averages: the first are the mathematical averages and the second are the positional averages. The mathematical averages are of three types: arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and harmonic mean. The arithmetic mean is the most widely used measure for central tendency; it can be obtained by adding all the items of the series and dividing this total by the number of items. In descriptive statistics, the geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the products of all the n values of the variable.

By Deborah J. Standard deviation can be difficult to interpret as a single number on its own. Basically, a small standard deviation means that the values in a statistical data set are close to the mean of the data set, on average, and a large standard deviation means that the values in the data set are farther away from the mean, on average. The standard deviation measures how concentrated the data are around the mean; the more concentrated, the smaller the standard deviation. A small standard deviation can be a goal in certain situations where the results are restricted, for example, in product manufacturing and quality control. A standard deviation is a number that tells us to what extent a set of numbers lie apart. A standard deviation can range from 0 to infinity.

## How to Interpret Standard Deviation in a Statistical Data Set

Standard deviation is a number used to tell how measurements for a group are spread out from the average mean , or expected value. A low standard deviation means that most of the numbers are close to the average. A high standard deviation means that the numbers are more spread out. The reported margin of error is usually twice the standard deviation. Scientists commonly report the standard deviation of numbers from the average number in experiments.

Basically, a small standard deviation means that the values in a statistical data set are close to the mean of the data set, on average, and a large standard.
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Analyzing data is great in SPSS. If you entered the correct data points and clicked on the correct analysis it is highly likely that you will have calculated your results correctly. This is a big improvement from hand calculations of the past that we so prone to human error. But because SPSS makes your analysis almost fool proof, it has become most important to be able to interpret your results correctly and communicate them to others. You will see two windows in the output file.

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